A regular PC is made up out of individual components, the basis is a motherboard. Everything in the PC is connected to it. The CPU, RAM, video card. All these devices hook up to standardized connectors and together they form the PC.
A Raspberry Pi is a single-board computer. It has a motherboard (it is a motherboard) but everything is soldered to it. You cannot add more memory or use a different video card.
Raspberry Pi usually runs on LINUX-based Raspbian OS. There is another OS as well such as Windows 10 IOT.
Coming to your question, Raspberry pi does the basic and most of the tasks that a Laptop or computer does. the main difference is as follows:
- Physical size is very small when compared to computers and laptops.
- The memory (Ram) size is fixed. its around 1GB cant be upgraded.
- The HDD is replaced by a microSD card in PI.
- Operating speed is less when compared to Laptops.
but, The Raspberry Pi is best for learning LINUX based OS, Programming can be used for smart devices such as IoT projects and is quite economic in price when compared to laptops and PCs.
A PC uses a x86 or x64 architecture. This is defined by the processor used. 32 bit is on the way out so most these days are 64bit CPU’s. This has its origins in the IBM “PC” first launched in the 80’s which used Intel CPU’s. These were of the x86 family. These days it is more likely to be x64/AMD64. The Pi on the other hand uses an ARM CPU. The difference here is the instruction set. This is a list of “commands” the CPU understands. Intel/ARM use very different instruction sets so operating systems and programs that work fine on a x64 won’t work on an ARM system and vice versa.