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What’s The Difference – VPN IPSEC Tunnel Mode and Transport Mode

IPSec’s protocol objective is to provide security services for IP packets such as encrypting sensitive data, authentication, protection against replay and data confidentiality. As outlined in our IPSec protocol article, Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) and Authentication Header (AH) is the two IPSec security protocols used to provide these security services.  Analyzing the ESP and AH protocols […]

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Understanding Spanning Tree Protocols – STP, RSTP, MSTP

In brief, the differences between Spanning Tree Protocol (STP), Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP), and Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) are as follows: STP: only supports a single instance. RSTP: supports fast convergence and a single instance. MSTP: includes the advantages of RSTP, and supports multiple instances. STP is the short form for Spanning Tree […]