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Network Address Translation (NAT) – Understanding Local, Global, Inside and Outside Address

NAT (abbreviation for Network Address Translation) is described in RFC 1631. NAT feature allows IP network of an organization to appear from the outside to use a different IP address space (Globally Routable) than what it is actually using (Non Routable Private IP Address). Thus, NAT allows an organization with non-globally routable addresses to connect to the Internet […]

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LACP vs PAGP

In order to create maximum availability and stability for networks, link redundancy or redundant links are emphasized by enterprises and data centers when deploying networks. Etherchannel technology is the most effective way to achieve network redundancy by providing automatic recovery for the loss of a link. When configuring Etherchannel across network devices such as switches […]

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JSON Web Token Structure – Three Parts Separated by Dots

All Auth0-issued JWTs have JSON Web Signatures (JWSs), meaning they are signed rather than encrypted. A JWS represents content secured with digital signatures or Message Authentication Codes (MACs) using JSON-based data structures. A well-formed JWT consists of three concatenated Base64url-encoded strings, separated by dots (.): JOSE Header: contains metadata about the type of token and the […]

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Understanding Media Access Control Security (MACsec)

Media Access Control security (MACsec) provides point-to-point security on Ethernet links. MACsec is defined by IEEE standard 802.1AE. You can use MACsec in combination with other security protocols, such as IP Security (IPsec) and Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), to provide end-to-end network security. MACsec is capable of identifying and preventing most security threats, including denial […]

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Understanding Cisco Severity Logging Level

Logging Level To enable logging messages from a defined facility that have the specified severity level or higher, use the logging level command. To disable logging messages from a defined facility, use the no form of this command. logging level facility severity-level no logging level facility severity-level Syntax Description facility Facility. The facilities are listed in System Message Logging Facilities.To apply the same severity […]