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Network Address Translation (NAT) – Understanding Local, Global, Inside and Outside Address

NAT (abbreviation for Network Address Translation) is described in RFC 1631. NAT feature allows IP network of an organization to appear from the outside to use a different IP address space (Globally Routable) than what it is actually using (Non Routable Private IP Address). Thus, NAT allows an organization with non-globally routable addresses to connect to the Internet […]

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How to Configure Embedded Packet Capture (EPC) for Cisco IOS

When enabled, the router captures the packets sent and received. The packets are stored within a buffer in DRAM and are thus not persistent through a reload. Once the data is captured, it can be examined in a summary or detailed view on the router. In addition, the data can be exported as a packet […]

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Understanding and Configuring 802.1X Port-Based Authentication

802.1X defines 802.1X port-based authentication as a client-server based access control and authentication protocol that restricts unauthorized clients from connecting to a LAN through publicly accessible ports. An authentication server validates each supplicant (client) connected to an authenticator (network access switch) port before making available any services offered by the switch or the LAN. Until […]

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LACP vs PAGP

In order to create maximum availability and stability for networks, link redundancy or redundant links are emphasized by enterprises and data centers when deploying networks. Etherchannel technology is the most effective way to achieve network redundancy by providing automatic recovery for the loss of a link. When configuring Etherchannel across network devices such as switches […]

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How to Convert a Cisco CAPWAP AP to a Mobility Express AP

by: François Vergès This article will explains how to convert a CAPWAP AP to a Cisco Mobility Express AP. The AP model used as an example in this article is a Cisco Aironet 2802i. Note: if you are planning on doing an AP-on-a-stick site survey with a Cisco Aironet 2800 or 3800, you will have […]

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JSON Web Token Structure – Three Parts Separated by Dots

All Auth0-issued JWTs have JSON Web Signatures (JWSs), meaning they are signed rather than encrypted. A JWS represents content secured with digital signatures or Message Authentication Codes (MACs) using JSON-based data structures. A well-formed JWT consists of three concatenated Base64url-encoded strings, separated by dots (.): JOSE Header: contains metadata about the type of token and the […]